Overcast, not too rainy or windy, 48 degrees.
We continue sailing in and among the spectacular fjords. We had a lecture this afternoon about how they are formed; basically what I told you but in more detail!
We stopped at Trondheim long enough to get on a bus and tour the city. It is the third largest in Norway. It was first named Kaupangen (English for market place or trading place) by King Olav in 997. Fairly soon, it came to be called Nidaros.
In the beginning it was frequently used as a military retainer of King Olav. It was frequently used as the seat of the king, and was the capital of Norway until 1217.
People have been living in the region for thousands of years as evidenced by scholars who believe that the famous Lewis chessman, 12th century chess pieces carved from walrus ivory found in the Hebrides and now at the British Museum, may have been made in Trondheim.
Trondheim was the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros for Norway from 1152. Due to the introduction of Lutheran Protestantism in 1537, the last Archbishop had to flee from the city to the Netherlands. The Nidaros Cathedral was built over the burial site of King Olav II, who became the patron saint of the nation. It took 230 years to complete it. It seats about 1850 people and it was historically used as the site of coronation of the kings of Norway. We weren't allowed to take pictures inside. It is beautiful! It has two organs and are used together to make beautiful music. I wish we could have heard a concert.
The city has experienced several major fires. Since it was a city of log buildings, made out of wood, most fires caused severe damage. Great fires ravaged the city in 1598, 1681, 1708, 1717, 1742, 1788, 1841 and 1842; these were only the worst cases. The 1651 fire destroyed 90% of all buildings. The fire in 1681 led to an almost total reconstruction of the city. Broad avenues were created in order to stop the next fire. At that time, the city had a population of about 8000 inhabitants.
For a brief time in 1658 Trondheim was conquered by Sweden.
During World War II, it was occupied by Nazi Germany from 9 April 1940 until the end of the war in Europe, 8 May 1945.
Trondheim today is a city of students, scientific conferences, live music, pub culture, super buses and bikes. Located there are: the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, St. Olavs University Hospital, SINTEF which is the largest independent research organization in Scandinavia, the Air Force Academy of the Royal Norwegian Air Force, the Geological Survey of Norway.
Tomorrow we cross into the Arctic Circle!!